An International Publications House

Albert Science International Organization

Connecting People With Pioneering Thought

Albert Science International Organization (ASIO) is international , peer-reviewed , open access , cum print version & online journals.
JOURNALS || ASIO Journal of Analytical Chemistry (ASIO-JAC) [ISSN: 2455-7072]

Author Names : Dr. Sudipta Saha
Page No. : 12-19  volume 1 issue 1
Article Overview



dids no.: 03.2016-28554435,

dids Link:


The term UPLC, meaning “Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography,” was introduced by Waters Corporation when they introduced their Acquity LC system. The underlying principles of this evolution are governed by the van Demeeter equation, which is an empirical formula that describes the relationship between linear velocity (flow rate) and plate height (HETP or column efficiency). It was found that HETP decreases to a minimum value and then increases with increasing flow rate. According to FDA, validation is defined as establishing documented evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes. UPLC can accommodate more number of samples than HPLC so sample throughput is enhanced. It gives not only high quality results but also ensures the safety of data by using security based data collection software.

Keywords: UPLC, HPLC, principle, instrumentation, applications.

  1. Ashok K. UPLC: A preeminent technique in pharmaceutical analysis, Acta poloniae pharmaceutica– drug research, 2012, 69(30): 371-380.
  2. Preeti VG. Ultra performance liquid chromatography: A recent novel development in HPLC, Pharmacie globale international journal of comprehensive pharmacy, 2012, 01, 1-3.
  3. Michael S. HPLC to UPLC method migration an over view of key considerations and available tools, Waters cooperation in press, 2007, 1-53.
  4. Michael ES. Ultra performance liquid chromatography UPLC: an introduction, separation science redefined, 2005, 1, 8-14.
  5. Srivastava B. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC): A chromatography technique, International journal of pharmaceutical quality assurance, 2010, 2(1):19-25.
  6. Michael ES. UPLC: An introduction and review, Journal of liquid chromatography & related technologies, 2005, 28, 1253–1263.
  7. Roge AB. Novel achievement of HPLC: UPLC. International journal of pharmtech research, 2011, 3(3): 1423-1429.
  8. Joseph S. UPLC: Ultra performance liquid chromatography, Journal of AOAC international, 2005, 10.
  9. Swartz ME. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC): An Introduction, Separation Science Re-Defined, LCGC Supplement, 2005, 12-18.
  10. Goodwin L, White SA, Spooner N. Evaluation of ultra-performance liquid chromatography in the bioanalysis of small molecule drug candidates in plasma, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2007, 45(6): 298–304.
  11. Srivastava B, Sharma BK, Baghel US. UPLC: a chromatographic technique, Inter J of Pharmaceu Quality Assu., 2010, 2(1): 19-25.
  12. Unger KK, Kumar D, Grun M, Buchel G, Ludtke S, Adam T, Scumacher K, Renker S. J. Chromatogr A. 2000, 89, 47-55.
  13. Swartz ME. UPLC: An Introduction and Review, J of Liq Chromato & Related Techno, 2005, 28:1253–1263.
  14. Swartz M, Murphy BJ, Sievers D. UPLC: Expanding the limits of HPLC, GIT Lab J., 2004, 8(5):43-45.
  15. Nguyen DT, Guillarme D, Rudaz S, Veuthey JL. Fast analysis in liquid chromatography using small particle size and high pressure, J Sep Sci., 2006, 29(12):1836-48.
  16. Gaikwad P, Sawant S, Ghante M, Munot N. Ultra performance liquid chromatography: A recent novel development in HPLC, Inter J of Compre Pharm., 2010, 2 (08):1-3.
  17. Trivedi RK, Patel MC, Jadhav SB. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation, Sci Pharm., 2011, 79: 525–543.
  18. Yadava M, Rao R, Kurania H, Singhala P, Goswamia S, Shrivastav PS. Application of a rapid and selective method for the simultaneous determination of protease inhibitors, lopinavir and ritonavir in human plasma by UPLC–ESI-MS/MS for bioequivalence study in Indian subjects, J of Pharm Biomed Anal., 2009, 49: 1115–1122.
  19. Wang D, Jiang K, Yang S, Qin F, Lu X, Li F. Determination of nifedipine in human plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a pharmacokinetic study, J of Chromato B, 2011, 879(20): 1827–1832.
  20. Berg T, Lundanes E, Christophersen A, Strand D. Determination of opiates and cocaine in urine by high pH mobile phase reversed phase UPLC–MS/MS, Jour of Chromato B, 2009, 877 (4): 421–432.
  21. Arthur L, Rochat B, Pesse B, Mercier T, Tissot F. Multiplex UPLC-MS method for simultaneous quantification in human plasma of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Hydroxyitraconazole, Posaconazole, Voriconazole, Voriconazole-N-Oxide, Anidulafungin, and Caspofungin,  Antimicrobial agents and chemo., 2010; 54 (12): 5303–5315.
  22. Stolker A, Rutgers P, Oosterink E, Lasaroms JP, Peter R. Comprehensive screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk using UPLC–ToF-MS, Anal Bioanal Chem., 2008, 391(6): 2309.
  23. Seshadri R, Desai M, Raghavaraju T, Krishnan D, Rao D, Chakravarthy I. Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Metoprolol, Atorvastatin and Ramipril in Capsules by a Validated Stability-Indicating RP-UPLC Method, Sci Pharm., 2010, 78: 821–834.
  24. Tylova T, Olsovska J, Novak PF. High-throughput analysis of tetracycline antibiotics and their epimers in liquid hog manure using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Chemosphere, 2010, 78 (4): 353–359.
  25. Chen L, Qin F, Ma Y, Li F. Quantitative determination of azithromycin in human plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography–electro sprays ionization mass spectrometry and its application in a pharmacokinetic study, J of Chromato B, 2007, 855 (2): 255–261.
  26. Cai S, Huo T, Feng W, Chen L, Qin F, Ma Y, Li F. Quantitative determination of mitiglinide in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography / electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, J of Chromato B, 2008, 868 (2): 83–87.
  27. Loos W, Graan A, Bruijn P, Schaik R. Simultaneous quantification of dextromethorphan and its metabolites dextrorphan, 3-methoxymorphinan and 3-hydroxymorphinan in human plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry,  Pharm Biomed Anal., 2011, 54 (2): 387–394.
  28. Sahu K, Karthikeyan C, Moorthy N, Trivedi P. A Validated UPLC Method Used for the Determination of Trandolapril and its Degradation Products as per ICH Guidelines, Current Pharmaceu Ana., 2011, 7(3): 182-188.
  29. Huang J, Gautam N, Praneeth S, Bathena R, Roy U, McMillan J, Howard E, Alnouti Y. UPLC–MS/MS quantification of         nano-formulated ritonavir, indinavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz in mouse serum and tissues, J of Chromato B, 2011, 879 (23): 2332-2338.
  30. Narasimham L, Barhate VD. Development and validation of stability indicating UPLC method for the simultaneous determination of beta-blockers and diuretic drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms, J. Chem. Metro., 2010, 4(1): 1-20.
  31. Huang W, Huang X, Xing Z, Qin F, Ren P. Simultaneous Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) analysis of five components in Fructusaurantiitype formulae, J Med. Plant. Res, 2011, 5(1): 99-103.
  32. Proença P, Franco J. Mustra C. Marcos M. An UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of valproic acid in blood of a fatal intoxication case, J. of Foren and Legal Med., 2011, (7):320–324.
  33. Wang L, Yuan K, Yu W. Studies of UPLC fingerprint for the identification of Magnoliae officinalis cortex processed, Pharmacogn Mag., 2010, 6(22): 83–88.
  34. Yanga Z, Gaoa S, Yina T, Kaustubh H. Biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of matrine as determined by a sensitive and robust UPLC–MS/MS method, J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2010, 51(5): 1120–1127.
  35. Lor E, Sancho J, Hernandez F. Multi-class determination of around 50 pharmaceuticals, including 26 antibiotics, in environmental and wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, J of Chromato A, 2011, 1218(16): 2264–2275.
  36. Trivedi R, Patel M. Development and validation of a stability indicating RP-UPLC method for determination of Quetiapine in pharmaceutical dosage form, Sci Pharm., 2011, 79: 97– 111.
  37. Goodwin L, White SA, Spooner N. Evaluation of ultra- performance liquid chromatography in the bioanalysis of small molecule drug candidates in plasma, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2007, 45(6): 298-304.