S. Ghosh, Methods for Defluorodation Techniques Employed in Potable Water Treatment: An Overview, ASIO Journal of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics & Applied Sciences (ASIO-JCPMAS), 2016, 1(1): 12-16.
ARTICLE TYPE: Review
dids no.: 03.2016-26169319,
dids Link: http://dids.info/didslink/03.2016-75434225/
Fluoride is a normal element of natural and underground water. The concentration of fluoride may vary significantly depending on the water source and from which it is collected. Although both geological and manmade sources contribute to the incident of fluoride in water, the major role comes from geological resources also. World Health Organization (1996) has set a guideline value of 1.5 mg/1 as the maximum permissible level of fluoride in drinking waters. Over the year’s groundwater has generally been considered to be a protected and safe source of water, fit for drinking without treatment, as the main focus has been on the bacteriological quality of potable water. Little consideration used to be given to the risks of chemical pollution, particularly to the presence of elevated levels of fluoride, arsenic and nitrate in groundwater. Consumption of water having excess fluoride over a prolonged period leads to a chronic ailment known as fluorosis. Incidence of high-fluoride groundwater has been reported from 23 nations around the globe. There having various techniques by which fluoride contents in water can be removed, eg. activated alumina or calcined alumin, reverse osmosis filtration, distillation filtration, adsorption, ion-exchange and membrane filtration.
Keywords: Defluorodation techniques in water, activated alumina, reverse osmosis filtration, distillation filtration, adsorption and ion-exchange and membrane filtration.
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