An International Publications House

Albert Science International Organization

Connecting People With Pioneering Thought

Albert Science International Organization (ASIO) is international , peer-reviewed , open access , cum print version & online journals.
JOURNALS || ASIO Publication of Thesis & Dissertation (ASIO-PTD)

Page No. : 01-147  volume 1 issue 1
Article Overview


Olamuyiwa Oluwafemi Solomon, Dr. Kiven James Kewir, Cross Border Insecurity and Regional Trade in COMESA, ASIO Publication of Thesis & Dissertation (ASIO-PTD), 2016, March, 1(1): 01-147.

ARTICLE TYPE: Dissertation

dids/doi No.: 02.2016-61128823

dids link: 


Regional trade integration in Africa co-exists with endemic insecurity, particularly cross-border insecurity. It can be argued that insecurity in general will deter trade, but it seems this influence is little explored in literature and cross-border insecurity is not viewed as one of the factors hindering regional integration and trade. This study set out to examine the extent to which cross-border insecurity affects regional trade integration in COMESA. A qualitative research design was used. A systematic review of literature and semi-structured interviews were employed as the methods of data collection. The traditional theories of international trade begin with the Theory of Absolute Advantage, which is one of the masterpieces of Adam Smith (1776, Scottish) in his “Wealth of Nations.” Next, there is the Theory of Comparative Costs or Advantage (David Ricardo, the Prince of Economists, 1817 in the Treaty of Economy and Taxation). We interviewed a total number of ten (10) stakeholders working within the AU Border Program of the AU Peace and Security Department and in the AU Trade and Industry Department at AU Headquarters at Addis Ababa and experts at COMESA Headquarters at Lusaka, Zambia and at COMESA Liaison Office in Addis Ababa. The study found out that free trade combined with poor border management was a recipe for the promotion of cross-border insecurity. The study arrived at two main findings: first, that cross-border insecurity not only has negative impact on regional trade but has other far reaching devastating macroeconomic and human consequences on individuals and cross-border communities and; second, that despite this, there was disagreement as to whether cross-border insecurity should be treated as a prominent factor hindering regional trade or not. This formed the basis for the debate in this study. General, bottom-up, bilateral and multilateral strategies were found to be pertinent in finding solutions to cross-border insecurity. This led to three (03) major policy recommendations: enhanced COMESA multilateral security and better border management programs and practices; bilateral engagement and; community empowerment. With respect to the debate, we suggested as area for future research, that more research should be done in this domain in other RECs in order to further clarify the impact of cross-border insecurity on economic integration in Africa. 


A. Books

  1. Bella B., ‘The Theory of Economic Integration’, Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, 1961.
  2. Burns et Grove, The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence, 7th Edition, Saunders, 2003.
  3. Denise. F. Polit et al, Essentials of Nursing Research: Methods, Appraisal, and Utilization, n/a.
  4. François Perroux, Economie et Société : Contrainte, échange, Don, Paris, Puf, 1960.
  5. Jarol B. Manheim et Richard C. Rich, Empirical Political Analysis, third Edition, 2001.
  6. Kader Parahoo, Nursing Research: Principles, Process and Issues, Macmillan, 1997.
  7. Lisa, M. Given, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods-Volumes 1 & 2, (Los Angeles-California: SAGE Publication Inc., 2008.
  8. R. Cooper, The Post-modern State and the World Order, Demos, n/a.
  9. Raymond James Jessen, ‘Statistical survey techniques.’ Wiley. , 1978 consulted 8 September 2015.

B. Journal Articles

  1. ACTESA et COMESA, ‘Informal Cross Border Food Trade in Southern Africa,’ Issue No. 001, July-September 2014.
  2. Adepoju. Aderanti., ‘Study on human trafficking in sub-Saharan Africa,’ n/a, 2005.
  3. Ana Christina Alves et al., ‘Africa’s challenges in international trade and Regional Integration: what role for Europe,” South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA), Occasional paper, May 2009.
  4. Annette Hubschle, ‘Organized Crime in Southern Africa,’ in First Annual Review, Institute for Security studies, 2010.
  5. Annie Barbara Chikwanha, ‘The Anatomy of Conflicts in the East African Community (EAC): Linking Security with Development,’ Institute for Security Studies, 2007.
  6. AU Border Program, ‘Draft African Union Strategy for Enhancing Border Management in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,’ May 2012.
  7. AU, ‘Draft African Union Strategy for Enhancing Border Management in Africa,’ AU publication, 2012.
  8. CCP-AU, ‘Regional Integration and AU and AU Organs and Institutions: challenges and opportunities,’ Civil Society Briefing Notes: 001, n/a.
  9. COMESA and the International Trade Centre, “COMESA Trade Profile”, 2012.
  10. Daniel Njiwa., ‘Trade and Sustainable Development News and Analysis on Africa,’ in Bridges Africa, Vol. 2, no 1, March 2013.
  11. Decision on the Report of the Implementation of the Roadmap and Global African Diaspora Process, Assembly/AU/Dec.367(XVII).
  12. DPC and associates, ‘Regional Cross border Trade Stakeholder Dialogue’, Mozambique, 2016.
  13. Edward George, ‘Trade in the East African Community (EAC) Africa’s intra-regional powerhouse’, 2013.
  14. FSNWG, in East Africa Cross-border Trade Bulletin, 2014.
  15. Geda Alemayehu et Haile K., ‘Regional Economic Integration in Africa: A Review of Problems and Prospects with a Case Study of COMESA,’ n/a, University of London, 2002,p.11.
  16. International Trade Centre ‘COMESA Trade Profile’, 2012.
  17. IOM, ‘In Pursuit of the Southern Dream: victims of necessity. Assessment of the irregular movement of men from the horn and East Africa to South Africa,’ n/a, 2009.
  18. Joseph Kioi Mbugua, ‘Cross-border insecurity in Eastern Africa: the case of the Democratic Republic of Congo’ in International Peace Support Training Centre, Occasional Paper Series 4 No 1, Nairobi, Kenya, 2013.
  19. Joseph Vincent Ntuda Ebode, ‘Geopolitique de la Criminalite Transfrontaliere Organisee et de L’insecurite Maritime, Enjeux pour L'Afrique de L’ouest’, in Seminar Paper, Abidjan, June 2014.
  20. Julliet Wanjiku et al., ‘Challenges and Prospects of Tracking Informal Cross-border Trade in COMESA Region’, University of Bonn, 2011.
  21. Julliet Wanjiku et al., ‘Challenges and Prospects of Tracking Informal Cross Border Trade in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA),’ University of Bonn, 2011.
  22. Ken Menkhaus, ‘Kenya-Border Somalia Border Conflict Analysis,’ in USAID Report, Development Alternatives Inc., August 2005.
  23. Kristof Titeca et Célestin Kimanuka, ‘Walking in the Dark: informal Cross-border trade in the Great Lakes Region,’ in Understanding conflict: building peace, International Alert, September 2012.
  24. Padamja Khandelwal, ‘COMESA and SADC: Prospects and Challenges for Regional Trade Integration,’ in IMF Working Paper, n/a, 2004.
  25. Padmaja Khandelwal, “COMESA and SADC: Prospects and Challenges for Regional Trade Integration, IMF Working Paper 2004”
  26. Robert Nkendah, ‘The Informal Cross-Border Trade of Agricultural Commodities between Cameroon and its CEMAC Neighbours’ paper for NSF/AERC/IGC conference December 2010.
  27. Roy Love, ‘Economic Drivers of Conflict and Cooperation in the Horn of Africa: A Regional Perspective and Overview,’ in Briefing Paper, Africa Programme, Chattam House, AFP BP 2009/01, December 2009.
  28. Strategic Plan of the African Union Commission, Volume 1: Vision and Mission of the African Union, May 2004.
  29. Think Security in Africa, ‘Border Security in Africa,’ First Edition, July 2012, n/a.
  30. UNHCR, ‘In the East and Horn of Africa people are on the move for various reasons, including the search for asylum and protection,’ 2014.
  31. UNODC, ‘Transnational Organized Crime in Eastern Africa: A Threat Assessment,’ n/a 2013.
  32. UNODC, ‘Transnational Organized Crime in Eastern Africa: A Threat Assessment,’ n/a, 2013.
  33. UNWFP, "Informal Cross Border Food Trade In Southern Africa’’ Issue 30, 2007.
  34. Wafula Okumu, ‘Border Management and Security in Africa’ in n/a .

C. Thesis, Dissertations and Notes

  1. Eustache Akono Atangane, ‘Public Policies on the Security of Cross-border Areas’ in course notes in Public Policy, university of Yaounde II- Soa, Cameroon, 2014.
  2. Jean Jacques Tony Ekomie, ‘Economic Integration in CEMAC,’ University of Yaounde II, 2014.
  3. Mathias Eric Owona Nguini “The Economics of Conflicts” in course notes, University of Yaounde II – Cameroon, 2014.
  4. Monangeng Mokalakwe, ‘The Use of Documentary Research Methods in Social Research,’ in African Sociological Review, no10, (1), University of Bostwana 2006.
  5. San Francisco Edit, Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section, California, n/a, p.1.

D. Webography

  1. About COMESA, in, consulted on14/07/2015.
  2. C. Wake, ‘Bringing the Local Back into the DRC Post Conflict Transition: What Role Should Local Solutions Play in Bringing Peace to the Congo,’ 2008,p.5, in from, consulted on the 28/06/2015.
  3. EU-UN, Joint Communiqué from the Eastern and Southern Africa – Indian Ocean Ministers and European Union High Representative, accessed from, consulted on 27/07/2015.
  4. Explorable, Validity and Reliability, in, consulted on the 21/09/15.
  5. How to investigate the use of medicines by consumers, in, consulted on the 19/09/15.
  6. K. Goldstein, ‘Getting in the Door: Sampling and Completing Elite Interviews’, PS: Political Science and Politics, 35: 4, (December, 2002), pp. 669-672; p. 673. In (consulted on 18/09/2015).
  7. K. M. T. Collins, A. J. Onwuegbuzie et Q. G. Jiao, ‘A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research’, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1:3, (July, 2007), In: DOI: 10.1177/1558689807299526, (consulted on 25/08/2015)
  8. Lee-Roy Chetty, ‘Challenges to Regional Integration and trade in Africa,’ in, 12 June 2012, consulted on 12/06/2015.
  9. Research Methods, Sociological Research Skills, in, consulted on 22/09/15.
  10. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Semi-Structured interviews, in, consulted on 22/09/2015.